Setting up an in-ear monitor can be exhausting and difficult, especially if you don’t have a good understanding of audio equipment. So, in this article, we’ll walk you through the basic set up of wired and wireless in-ear monitors for a live performance.
Note: The correct setup will usually depend on the equipment and the number of monitor mixes. What we’re going to discuss here is the basic setup for most in-ear monitors (IEMs).
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How to Properly Set Up In-Ear Monitors
Before starting, you need to be familiar with how in-ear monitors work [How Do In-Ear Monitors Work] to set it up correctly. Your IEM system consists of four main components:
- Mixing console (also known as a mixer or mixing board)
- Beltpack receiver
- In-ear monitor (wired or wireless)
The Mixing Console
After you’ve chosen your in-ear monitor (wired or wireless, custom or universal), the next thing you need to do is to plug in all of your musical instruments and microphones into a stage box. A stage box is a device used for connecting your equipment (instruments, microphones, speakers, etc.) to your mixing console.
A mixing console is an electronic device that receives and combines audio signals from various sources (i.e., singer’s voice, drums, guitar, etc.) during a live performance. Then, it converts them into a digital signal.
Most experts recommend setting up in-ear monitors with a digital mixer for several reasons. For one, it allows you to save your mixes. So, if you’re on tour, you can immediately recall your settings, thus you save time.
Another reason is safety, i.e., you can set a maximum limit to ensure you’re not sending too many signals to an in-ear monitor. Some people would prefer plugging an in-ear monitor into a beltpack receiver and set the mixer’s limit, and then returning the pack to the performer.
From the mixing console, the thing you need to do is decide whether you’ll go wired or wireless. If you decide to go wired, there are two ways to go about it:
First Option: Use an Extension Cable
- Plug in an extension cable into one of the aux (or auxiliary) port on your mixer. An aux port has an audio input (“Aux Input”) and audio output (“Aux Output”) ports that send signals from one device to another.
- Plug your in-ear monitor directly into the XLR cable.
Second Option: Using a Preamplifier
Without a preamplifier (also called a preamp), the final output signal would be distorted. The goal of a preamplifier is to strengthen a weak signal, so it’s strong enough to be processed or noise-tolerant before it’s sent to a power amplifier.
What’s the advantage of this type of setup? Direct connection through cable produces a better signal than a wireless setup.
- Plug in your in-ear monitor to your mixing console.
- Then, plug in your in-ear monitor to your preamplifier.
Wireless Setup of In-Ear Monitor
Drummers don’t usually need wireless in-ear monitors because they just sit and stay in one place. Also, if you’ve read reviews of best in-ear monitors for drummers, you’ll know they’re expensive. But if you’re a singer or instrumentalists who need to be free on stage, going wireless is your best option.
Probably one of the biggest downsides of a wireless setup is the audio signal tends to be erratic, especially if you’re performing in large venues, such as theaters. To minimize this risk, here’s how to carry out a wireless in-ear monitor setup:
- Connect your base amp to a mixing console, and then set the correct frequency. Depending on the device, this can be done either manually or automatically.
- Make sure your transmitter is on the same frequency as the base. But since after 2020, wireless microphone systems, such as in-ear monitors, are no longer allowed by the FCC to operate in the the 600 MHz frequency band. Therefore, in-ear monitors operating in this frequency band are considered illegal [Are In-Ear Monitors Legal].
The transmitter sends the output from your mixing console to your beltpack receiver. From your mixing console, you need to plug the mixer outputs into the input jacks on your wireless transmitter.
Note: If you’re in a band that uses the same audio mix, you’ll only need one transmitter. But if you or your band mates prefer a customized monitor mix, you’ll need to use a different transmitter for every custom mix.
The transmitter sends the wireless audio signal to the beltpack receiver. Once the receiver picks up the audio signal, it sends it to your in-ear monitor. From there, you can adjust the volume and playback levels on the receiver.
Note: Each performer will need their own receiver, unless they’re using a system that’s built into the monitor mixer.
Normally, you’ll only need a few minutes to setup an in-ear monitor. However, there are in-ear monitor systems that are sophisticated. If you’re unsure how to set up your IEM system, contact a professional or the manufacturer’s customer service representative, so they can walk you through the process.